Building a USN Port
around a Hog Islander in 1/700
Congratulation's Jim, for winning a silver metal for this diorama at Telford 2006!!!
This whole idea came about as a result of being a subscriber to the much lamented brainchild of Dan H Jones—Plastic
Ship Modeller magazine-PSM.
In the 1994/4 issue there was a short article and a set of drawings of the WW1 military transport ships –known collectively
as the Hog Islanders –The article was written and illustrated by Dan H Jones-a condensation thereof below:
America was a late arrival in the First World War and, as with all previous wars, was woefully unprepared. One problem
deemed of critical importance by her new allies, the British, was the depredations of the German U-Boats and surface raiders.
Merchant ships were the lifeline of the Empire and new tonnage the most urgent need for applying America's production potential
and vast manpower pool to the prosecution of the war. With great enthusiasm but with little advanced planning, America committed
to a vast production program and boasted of spanning the seas with a "bridge of ships" and darkening the skies with her aircraft.
This however, took time and the full effect of the American mass production potential was just beginning to be felt when the
armistice was signed.
Overnight, vast and lavish war contracts were canceled and many industries collapsed. One of the more ambitious projects
was for the mass production of cargo ships. Yards were created and materials acquired but only a few ships had been delivered
when the war ended. Hog Island, the largest of three new assembly yards, had not finished a single ship. There was still a
perceived need to rebuild the merchant marine and the possibility of foreign sales seemed strong, thus the decision was made
to complete most of the Hog Island contracts.
A shortage of merchant shipping was one of the factors for America remaining neutral for so long. Reasoning was that if
America could not transport its own men and material to the battlefield, then America could not fight. Addressing this problem,
Congress passed the Federal Shipping Act of 1916. The act provided for the creation of a new public agency, The United States
Shipping Board, to "create a merchant marine adequate for the United States". The Shipping Board was given wide reaching powers,
and more importantly, was funded by $50,000,000 to implement its programs. A corporation using both public and private funds
was formed. The Emergency Fleet Corp. found that existing American yards were not large or numerous enough to
meet the needs so contracts were let to Japan and China. More importantly, contracts were entered into with private companies
to form new yards, called "Agency Yards" to expand the building capability. These would be assembly yards, building prefabricated
ships, rather than using traditional methods.
One such company, the American International Corp. started by purchasing the New York Shipbuilding Company of Camden, New
Jersey. Plans to expand the yard could only go so far due to the limits of available land.
Across the Delaware River lies the city of Philadelphia. A little known island, swampy and barren apart from a single abandoned
shack, near Philadelphia, called Hog Island, was deemed suitable and was easy to acquire. It faced the Delaware River, offered
over two miles of shoreline and the river was deep enough to permit launchings. Soon the island was transformed with a connecting
railroad and marshalling yards, thirty slipways, seven fitting out wet docks, a forest of cranes and gantries and a holding
basin.Building the yards and setting up the assembly methods presented tremendous problems for the company and the Shipping
Board. Nothing on this scale had ever before been attempted. The concept of building ships in parts and assembling them at
a central location was revolutionary, the first time this had been done. There were delays and the costs were enormous. In
spite of the coldest winter on record construction proceeded and the first keel of a Type A was laid on February 6, 1918.
The first completed hull, the USS Quistconck, was christened on August 5, 1918.Two basic designs were to be
fabricated at the yard, both to be collectively known as "Hog Islanders". The Type A design was a cargo carrier and the Type
B was designed to transport troops. Both were simple designs geared toward mass production and aesthetic considerations were
ignored. The hulls had no sheer and were syrnmetrical from the sides, resulting in some of the uglier ships ever to sail the
seas. They were ugly but they were well built and had a good performance in terms of capacity and speed. All were oil fired
and were very modern in design except for their silhouette. The Type B in particular was said to be designed with camouflage
in mind because with their lack of sheer, high stern, and the evenly balanced superstructure, submarines would have trouble
telling which direction they were going.The Hog Island contract called for 180 ships but with the end of the
war, only 122 were completed. The last was completed in January 21, 1921. The Shipping Board now found itself in the shipping
business. Over a third of the modern oil fired vessels in it's fleet were Hog Islanders and at first the Board was reluctant
to sell them. Private operators petitioned successfully to force sale of these desirable hulls but when they were made available
it was at inflated prices. In the postwar boom many owners paid the asking price which turned a nice profit for the Emergency
Shipbuilding Corporation. With the shipping slump of 1921 everything changed. Hog Islanders were still at their original prices
which then represented three times the market rate. Although the Shipping Board did not reduce their prices nor accept proposals
of rebates, they did allow strapped owners to return ships to Shipping Board control. Most of the early sales reverted back
to Government ownership. In the interest of helping the development of the American Merchant Marine a subsidy scheme was then
created whereby an owner could bid on an established route and be compensated by Federal funds and be allowed a very reasonable
purchase price for a Hog Islander hull. Many new companies were thus created to operate what would have been otherwise unprofitable
routes. Most of the established shipping companies also took advantage of this scheme and the Hog Island type became a very
important element in the between-the-wars merchant marine.Most of the ships were still around in WW II and did the job they
were designed for one war earlier. The hospital ship USS Samaritan was unmistakably a Hog Islander, her silhouette was unaltered
apart from her markings. Others served in their intended roles as cargo and troop transports.
Being a connoisseur of the unusual as well as an appreciator of the classic ‘three Island’ type of freighter
along with the functional simplicity of the sheerless design of the ‘Hogs I had always promised myself I would someday
use the drawings in PSM magazine to scratch build a model…. Years passed.. and with an ever-growing kit-stash to build
my way through there was always ‘ another model’ to build before tackling the Hog Islander…
My good intentions were overtaken by the appearance of a Hog Islander resin kit in 1/700, manufactured by Battlefleet Models--who
specialize in the off-beat subjects.
I obtained a kit, using copious drawings and plans set to work—it would be a quick build- a simple little freighter
with no guns…..Ha!
Extensive study of plans and photos soon led to the conclusion that this standard design of ship was anything but standard…!!-variations
in porthole numbers as well as locations, plating runs and superstructure shapes and layouts. I coincidentally obtained a
USS Capella First day service envelope dating from 1938… so the USS Capella it would have to be!
Fortunately there are some useful photo resources online showing this vessel, with some good close-up photos also here
These allowed me to add extra detail to my build of the ship. At this stage I decided to have the ship lying to a buoy
–light—so that more of the underwater hull would be visible—the kit shows the vessel at near full load.
While |I liked the slightly ungainly look of the high on her marks as seen in many photos.
So the first thing to add was additional plastic shims to gain the extra depth.
Once the cement had set I simply carved it to conform to the hull contours existing. So as to build a credible model of
USS Capella required some portholes to be added-but rather more difficult -some needed to be removed and altered in height.
Study of photos showed visible plating runs-so I decided to represent this by the application of 3-M Scotch Magic tape---thin,
dead matt and easy!
I have no concerns about the longevity of this material if properly sealed with varnish and paint.
I have ‘plated’ some hulls in this manner in the past-some of the models are 15 plus years old now with no
sign of movement whatsoever.
this allowed me to create overlapping runs that allowed me to replace and re-site the portholes according to the plans
and photos. After initial painting I ran some Tamiya masking tape along the hull at the lower end of the desired porthole
positionsthese were pricked through with a pushpin along the tape line prior to drilling out with a pinvice
At the same time I opened up the scuppers and fairlead apertures all around-the hull was taking life now!
Due to a CA glue glitch on my part(!) the assembled deckhouse levels did not give me the completely slab-fronted look that
the ships had-so I cut a new styrene overlay to smooth the area
I took the opportunity then to cut in the stairwell apertures and the inter-deck stanchions. The upper bridge had supports
with T brackets-this caused me brief quandary… a quick search through the old PE stash located some larger scale hand
drill-when cut down it was perfect in all dimensions
The Hog Islanders were festooned all over with cowl ventilators. The supplied cast items had their mouths reduced in size,
depth and were extensively drilled out to make the edges thinner. Additional vents need to be made-I used lead solder for
this-an ideal material-having a soft flux core making it very easy to bend, shape and drill out the mouth.
The photo illustrates the sequence